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A Spiritual and most preciouse perle / Perl mewn adfyd (1595)

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This religious treatise is Huw Lewys’ (Dictionary of Welsh Biography entry: http://yba.llgc.org.uk/en/s-LEWI-HUG-1562.html) (1562–1634) adaption into Welsh of Miles Coverdale’s ([http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/6486) A spyrytuall and moost precyouse pearle, which is a translation of Otto Werdmüller’s Ein Kleinot Von Trost und Hilf in allerley Trübsalen. It was the first Welsh book printed in Oxford (Gruffydd 1929: xlviii).

Welsh edition:

Perl Mewn Adfyd neu, Perl ysprydawl, gwyrthfawrocaf, yn dyscu i bôb dyn garu, a chofleidio y groes, meis peth hyfryd angenrheidiawl ir enaid, pa gonffordd sy yw gael o honi, ple, ac ym ha fodd, y dylid ceisiaw diddanwch, a chymorth ym hob adfyd: a thrachefn, pa wedd y dyle bawb i ymddwyn i hunain mewn blinder, yn ol gair duw. A escrifennwyd yn gyntaf mewn Duitch gann bregethwr dyscedig Otho Wermulerus, ac a droed i’r Saesonaeg gann D. Miles Coverdal, ac yrawrhon yn hwyr ir Gambraeg gann. H. L. Rhydychen: Joseph Barnes, 1595. Author: Miles Coverdale, translator: Huw Lewys.

The text has been edited in Lewys, Huw. 1929. Perl Mewn Adfyd. Yn ôl Argraffiad 1595 Gyda Rhagymadrodd gan W. J. Gruffydd (Caerdydd).

The Welsh text was taken from the Historical Corpus of the Welsh Language 1500–1850 (http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/hcwl/pma/PMA_running.htm, where only the first thirteen chapters were included.

Image: courtesy of the National Library of Wales.

English edition:

A Spirituall, and most Precious Pearle, teaching all men to loue and imbrace the crosse as a most svveete and necessary thing vnto the soule: vvhat comfort is to be taken thereof: vvhere and hovv both consolation and aide in all manner of afflictions is to be sought: and againe, hovve all men shoulde behaue themselues therin, according to the vvorde of God. London: Hugh Singleton, 1574. Author: Otto Werdmüller, translator: Miles Coverdale

http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&res_id=xri:eebo&rft_id=xri:eebo:image:6014.

The English text used in alignment is taken from a proofread 1812 edition’s OCR https://archive.org/details/spiritualmostpre00werd, digitizing sponsor: Columbia University Libraries.

A Spiritual and most preciouse perle, teachynge all men to loue & imbrace ye crosse as a most swete and necessarye thinge unto the soule: what comfort is to be taken thereof: where and howe bothe consolacion and aide in al maner of afflyccions is to bee sought: and agayne howe all men should behaue themselves therin, accordyng to the Word of God. London: Messrs. Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Browne, Paternoster, 1812. Printed by S. Gosnell, Little Queen Street, London. Author: Otto Werdmüller, translator: Miles Coverdale.

This enables a more reliable search in the English text due to orthographic normalisation undertaken for the 19th century edition.

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A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars / Berr hanes o'r pethau mwyaf hynod (1779)

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The book is an autobiography, showing the author’s life in Africa, America and then in England, his conversion to Christianity and his troubles. The translator is most likely the famous William Williams of Pantycelyn (1717–1791) (Dictionary of Welsh Biography entry:http://yba.llgc.org.uk/en/s-WILL-WIL-1717.html), cf. Eluned Rees, Libri Walliae. A Catalogue of Welsh Books and Books Printed in Wales 1546–1820 (2 vols.; Aberystwyth, 1987), p. 69. I am indebted to Dr. Marion Löffler for helping me to confirm the attribution.

Welsh edition:

Berr hanes o’r pethau mwyaf hynod ym mywyd James Albert Ukawsaw Groniosaw, tywysog o Affrica: fel yr adroddwyd ganddo ef ei hun. Aberhonddu: E. Evans, 1779. Author: James Albert Ukawsaw Groniosaw, translator: William Williams, of Pantycelyn.

The Welsh text was taken from the Historical Corpus of the Welsh Language 1500–1850: http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/hcwl/jaug/jaug_running.htm.

Image: courtesy of the National Library of Wales.

English edition:

A Narrative of the Most Remarkable Particulars in the Life of James Albert Ukawsaw Gronniosaw, an African Prince, as related by Himself. Bath: T. Mills, 1772. Printed by W. Gye in Westgate-Street. Author: James Albert Ukawsaw Groniosaw.

Text used: Project Gutenberg e-book: https://ia902604.us.archive.org/19/items/anarrativeofthem15042gut/15042-h/15042-h.htm.

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The Young Cottager / Crefydd mewn bwthyn (1819)

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This book is one of three pious stories written by Legh Richmond (1772–1827), which constitute a trilogy “Annals of the Poor” (published by the Religious Tract Society in 1814), immediately translated into other languages. It was a bestseller and total circulation of this trilogy during the lifetime of the author in English only is estimated as 2 million copies (G. F. W. Munby, ‘Richmond, Legh (1772–1827)’, rev. Clare L. Taylor, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Oct 2009 http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/23595, accessed 26 June 2015). In Wales “the progress of education, particularly through the Sunday schools, rendered it highly important to provide wholesome aliment for the appetite that was created” (Jones, William. 1850. The Jubilee Memorial of the Religious Tract Society: containing a record of its origin, proceedings, and results. A.D. 1799 to A.D. 1849. (London: Religious Tract Society), p. 240). The Welsh version is characterised on the title page as Anrheg addas i Ysgolion Sabbothol (A proper gift for Sunday schools). The Welsh translator remains anonymous, being referred to as “[g]weinidog o Eglwys Loegr” (minister of the Church of England).

Welsh edition:

Crefydd mewn bwthyn; neu, Hanes Jane Bach, yn dangos y buddioldeb o egwyddori plant. A adroddwyd ac a gyfieithwyd gan weinidog o Eglwys Loegr. Bala: R. Saunderson, 1819.

The Welsh text was taken from the Historical Corpus of the Welsh Language 1500–1850: http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/dwew2/hcwl/cmb/cmb_running.htm.

English edition:

The Young Cottager; a true story. By the author of the Dairyman’s Daughter. London: Printed for W. Whittemore. [date not shown, Religious Tract Society No 151, around 1814].

The immense popularity of the text in the age of less strict copyright results in some textual fluidity. Several scans were consulted, the text for this project was taken from the digitalization of the 1900 edition, in comparison to which the Welsh shows many omissions but no additions, as is in the case of other editions.

The Annals of the Poor. By the Rev. Legh Richmond, M. A., Late Rector of Turvey, Bedfordshire. London: T. Nelson and Sons, Paternoster Row. Edinburgh and New York, 1900. Author: Legh Richmond. https://archive.org/details/theannalsofthepo19671gut.

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Uncle Tom’s Cabin / Caban F’Ewyrth Twm (1853)

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The novel of Harriett Beecher Stowe was first printed as a 40-week serial in the American periodical The National Era, starting with the June 5, 1851. It was first published as a book in Boston by John P. Jewett in 1852 (see Uncle Tom’s Cabin and American Culture Website http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/sitemap.html). In Britain it was published in the same year by John Cassel, Ludgate Hill. In 1853 the same publisher printed a translation into Welsh by Hugh Williams (Cadfan) (1807?–1870) (Dictionary of Welsh Biography Entry: http://yba.llgc.org.uk/en/s-WILL-HUG-1807.html).

It was one of eight translations or adaptations of the novel into Welsh in 1852–1853 (some rendering the whole text, some only the first chapters), as shown by David Willis (Willis, David. 2015. Cymraeg y caethweision yng nghyfieithiadau Cymraeg Uncle Tom’s Cabin yng nghyd-destun darluniadau o siaradwyr ail iaith mewn llenyddiaeth Gymraeg cyn yr Ail Ryfel Byd, paper held at Cyfieithu i’r Gymraeg yng Nghymru yn y 18fed a’r 19eg Ganrif, Centre for Advanced Welsh and Celtic Studies, University of Wales (Aberystwyth)).

Welsh edition:

Caban F’Ewyrth Twm. Llundain: John Cassell, Ludgate Hill, 1853. Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe, translator: Hugh Williams (Cadfan).

Welsh text provided by D. Willis.

Image: "Clawr Caban F’ewyrth Twm". Via Wikipedia: https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Del...Twm.PNG.

English edition:

Uncle Tom's Cabin. London: John Cassel, Ludgate Hill, 1852. Author: Harriet Beecher Stowe.

Text used:

https://archive.org/details/uncletomscabin00instow, digitizing sponsor: The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant.

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