Objective: Understanding correlations oft he necessity of protected areas.
Learning outcomes: Students learn about the necessity of protected areas and get to know different factors influence the latter and their correlations.
Previous knowledge: Knowledge of biodiversity
Duration: 60 min
Materials / Conditions: Text (cf. Resources) and searching the internet
Methods / Techniques: group work, concept mapping, reading comprehension
Learning subject: Biodiversity / Module 2: Biodiversity and environmental protection / Level: advanced learning
Introduction: As you might know, there are many factors that can lead to the extinction of biodiversity on an island. In this activity, you will get an insight into the correlation of these Factors on Fogo.
1. Divide up into groups of four and read the text below (cf. Resources section). Note down important key words from the text e.g. the decrease of endemic plants, hunting, introduction of grazing cattle, land degradation etc.
2. On the basis of your findings, create a concept map about the necessity of protected areas.
3. Finally, one group will present ist solution tot he class and the rest of you will add their results to the group’s presentation.
Estimating the necessity for protection
Three of the four factors cited by WHITTAKER (1998) posing a threat to biodiversity on islands can be identified on Fogo: (1) direct hunt; (2) introduction of non-native species; (3) land degradation or loss, whereby degradation is the factor with the highest impact. As WHITTAKER (1998) puts it, endemic plants are usually caught in a predicament. Decreased in number due to a shrinking habitat, exposed to pressure from hunt and grazing cattle and confronted with competition for space with exotic species. Most times, it’s the synergy of those factors that leads to a loss of species, which probably would have been able to cope with one type of pressure alone. The events following the settlement of the previously unoccupied can be summarized as follows: natural vegetation is highly altered or destroyed though land clearing, introduction of grazing cattle, erosion, direct hunt and implicit as wells as explicit introduction of allochthonous species. The goats that are introduced soon develop herds that destroy the vegetation. Erosion (wind and water) increases where vegetation was weakened and is increased by heavy rainfall.
(Translation taken from: Leyens, Teresa (2002): Biodiversität und Erhalt der Hochlagenvegetation der Insel Fogo (Kap Verde): Ausarbeitung eines Konzeptes für ein Schutzgebiet, S. 121, Bonn (http://hss.ulb.uni-bonn.de/2002/0130/0130.pdf) Aufgerufen am 08.08.15, Portuguese: Leyens, T. (2001): Biodiversidade da prevista área protegida na Ilha do Fogo, Cabo Verde und Whittaker, R. J. 1998: Island Biogeography. – Oxford University Press, New York.
Possible results / Results:
Creating a concept map
Author: Shirin Doustmohammadian und Vanessa Hofmann
Aus dem Deutschen übersetzt von Jana Prokaka